Eindrapport Inspectieonderzoek Vervolgingsbeleid van het Openbaar Ministerie

Willemstad, 13 juni 2016 – In 2015 werd door de Raad voor de Rechtshandhaving onderzoek verricht naar het vervolgingsbeleid van het Openbaar Ministerie (OM) op Curaçao. Het rapport van dit onderzoek is inmiddels gereed en aangeboden aan de Minister van Justitie. In de Rijkswet is bepaald dat de Raad zijn rapport zes weken nadat het aan de minister is aangeboden, openbaar kan maken. Deze termijn is verstreken en bijgevolg is het rapport overeenkomstig de vigerende regeling gepubliceerd. In het rapport worden de bevindingen van de raad gepresenteerd met betrekking tot het vervolgingsbeleid van het Openbaar Ministerie (OM) op Curaçao. De Raad adviseert de Minister van Justitie op basis van haar onderzoek om zorg te dragen voor een vastgesteld en gepubliceerd vervolgingsbeleid. De Raad adviseert ook om algemene richtlijnen uit te vaardigen om het vervolgingsbeleid mede te bepalen en te bevorderen dat zaken binnen een redelijk termijn worden afgehandeld. Ten opzichte van de OM beveelt de Raad de Minister aan om interne richtlijnen naar vastgesteld en gepubliceerd vervolgingsbeleid te vertalen en verantwoording af te leggen voor de (tijdige) afhandeling van zaken door middel van o.a. jaarverslagen. Tot slot adviseert de Raad om de administratieve ondersteuning bij de OM te verbeteren.

Hoewel de Minister de bevoegdheid heeft om algemene aanwijzingen te geven aan het Openbaar Ministerie aangaande het vervolgingsbeleid, heeft de Minister in de praktijk geen richtlijnen uitgevaardigd. Ook de Procureur-Generaal en de Hoofdofficier van Justitie kunnen algemene en bijzondere aanwijzingen geven aan de leden van het Openbaar Ministerie ten aanzien van het vervolgingsbeleid.
Aan de vervolgings- en sepotbeslissingen liggen twee componenten ten grondslag: de haalbaarheids- en opportuniteitscomponent. De haalbaarheidscomponent duidt op een anticiperend oordeel van het Openbaar Ministerie. Deze toetsing wordt verricht door het Openbaar Ministerie vanwege de praktische reden dat vervolging in de gevallen die niet tot een veroordeling zullen leiden zinloos is en belangrijker vanwege het feit dat vervolging niet moet plaatsvinden zonder dat er sprake is van een aanknopingspunt met een strafbaar feit.
Tevens moet het Openbaar Ministerie toetsen of vervolging opportuun is. Volgens het Wetboek van Strafvordering dient indien het Openbaar Ministerie naar aanleiding van het ingestelde opsporingsonderzoek van oordeel is, dat vervolging moet plaatsvinden, zo spoedig mogelijk daartoe over te gaan. Voorts bepaalt het Wetboek van Strafvordering dat van vervolging kan worden afgezien op gronden van algemeen belang. Het opportuniteitsbeginsel heeft betrekking op de vraag of strafrechtelijke interventie het aangewezen middel is. In verband met de ontwikkelingen in het strafrecht moet ook de verschuiving van het strafrecht als ultimum remedium naar optimum remedium in beschouwing worden genomen. Het Openbaar Ministerie zal dan moeten afwegen of via bijvoorbeeld fiscaalrechtelijke of bestuursrechtelijke middelen geen effectievere resultaten kunnen worden bereikt.
Aan het opportuniteitsbeginsel zijn een aantal risico’s verbonden waaronder: willekeur, detournement de pouvoir (misbruik van macht) en uitholling van de bevoegdheden van de Ministers en de parlementen. Adequate controle op de toepassing van het opportuniteitsbeginsel is derhalve noodzakelijk. Het onderzoek van de Raad is tevens gericht op de beantwoording van de vraag of de criteria die ten grondslag liggen aan de vervolging consequent worden toegepast.
Zaken moeten binnen een redelijke termijn worden afgedaan. Het Openbaar Ministerie hanteert als norm dat zaken binnen 9 maanden aan de rechter moeten worden voorgelegd, terwijl volgens jurisprudentie als uitgangspunt wordt aangenomen dat de duur van het proces vanaf de start tot het eindvonnis per instantie twee jaar in beslag kan nemen. De Raad heeft echter vernomen dat in bepaalde gevallen geen duidelijkheid wordt gegeven over de voortgang van de procedure terwijl het OM daartoe verplicht is.

Met de publicatie van het rapport voldoet de Raad aan zijn wettelijke verplichting. De Raad attendeert erop dat dit slechts een samenvatting is van alle feiten en bevindingen. Het volledig rapport is digitaal beschikbaar op de website.

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